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Sample details Pages: 18 Words: 5493 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Britvic soft drink has a long and rich history that extends back to Victorian England and further. The British Vitamin Products Company from which Britvic takes its abbreviated name was founded in the mid-nineteenth century in the market town of Chelmsford in Essex. The company was then little more than a home business run from a chemists shop, not unusual for a soft drinks producer of the time. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Concepts Of Managing Activities In Markets" essay for you Create order Soon the company was producing all kinds of concocted soft drinks including lemonades, minerals waters, non alcoholic ales and tonics. It was in 1938 that the Britvic ranges of juices that we know today were first produced thanks to Ralph Chapman, owner of the British Vitamin Products Company. During Great Depression in the UK, he realised the need to supply fresh and affordable source of Vitamin C to its customer thats when to bottle fruit juice. His juices were sold in small glass a bottle which ensures easy transportation. The idea was immediately successful but it was only in 1949 that the Britvic Brand was formally launched into the marketplace. In the years after Second World War, Britvic went strength to strength by building a modern factory in its hometown of Chelmsford. In its leading brand appeal it changed its name to Britvic. In 1968, Canada Dry Rawlings -a company formed by the merger of Bass (now IHG) and Whitbreads soft drinks interest came together with Britvic to form Britvic soft brink. The company went to buy the soft drinks business of Beechams and acquire the UK, franchises of Pepsi and 7UP. In 1995 Britvic added Robinson to the fold and acquired Orchid Drink, Aqua Libra and Purdeys Brands. In 2000 Britvic acquired the UK and Irish rights of the energy drink Red Devil. In 2004, Britvic acquired the water business of Ben Shaws, which includes Pennine Spring. In 2007, Britvic acquired the soft drinks and distribution businesses of CC Group plc. Task 1 Business Mission, Aims and Objectives: Importance of organizational structure: According to Michael A. Hitt and R. Duane Ireland (2009) defines organisational structure as Organisational structure specifies the firms formal reporting relationships, procedures controls and authority and decision making process. Britvic has always been a growing company which makes it necessary to get the organization structure right. If the organization lacks the capabilities and hold over the companys affair, it becomes then difficult to fix the problem when it has grown too big. Because of the growing company its makes more important to have right structure as it provide good chain of command making it easier to the decision maker. Span of control determines and quantifies the actual of people under one department, having a different department within an organization with right functional division such as sales, marketing and so on makes it easier to determine the responsibility with right authority and having the power to make decision. The Diagram below gives a clear picture of Organization Structure: Diagram 1: https://www.ehow.com/facts_5157072_importance-organizational-structure.html There are number of department in Britvic which enables it to work efficiently and effectively to maintain its market position. Customer Management Director: It heads up this section of the company, which is responsibility for the strategic development and profitable growth of our business across a diverse number of sales channels. This area covers 250,000 outlets that sells the brands and has responsibility for around 700 sales people at all levels of seniority, from new graduate to senior management. It allows to the channel structure within customer management allows Britvic to maintain a balanced focus on established and growth channels with clear line of sight to customer groups. Grocery Convenience and Impulse Licensed Foodservice Customer Operations Channel Marketing and Customer Insight The structure of customer managemen t also incorporates regional sales and third party, has been designed to stretch and develop all areas of business management by managing clients as varied as major retailers, corner shops and national restaurant chains. To be successful in this environment calls for an acute customer focus, commercial acumen and the ability to communicate well with people at all levels. Supply Chain: It is a crucial part of the business that is responsible for producing the companys demand forecast to enable the sourcing of raw materials and services, which in turn are used for manufacturing high quality products which is ultimately, is delivered to the customer. This is head by Supply Chain Director. There are number department that is interring linked. 2.1. Production: The main objectives of the production team are to manufacture products which meet quality, cost and time objectives and to prepare the factories and people to meet future requirements. There are 7 factories with over 10 00 of workers working in there and producing 110 million cases every year. This is dynamic, fast, moving, high velocity environment where maintaining high quality along with high speed production is important. 2.2. Logistics: The overall objective of the logistic team is to produce unbeatable availability delivered together in order to achieve that objective must be built on high quality plans working with customers and suppliers and meeting customers delivery schedule through complex distribution network. It consists of Customer Logistics and Supply Logistics teams. Using SAP system they forecast the demand before processing the bulk orders. There are 300 vehicles working on sites across UK, Britvic transport and deliver 15,000 customers making 500,000 deliveries every year. 2.3. Technical Development: New product development is the engine of growth for Britvic business. The technical development team bring the blue sky thinking of marketers into reality. They manage complex products, packaging and engineering projects that are key to keeping Britvic ahead of the competition. Technical development team is responsible to bring value for money out of an annual multi million pound investment. Optimising processes for highest efficiency and lowest cost. 2.4. Central quality, safety and environmental: The central quality, safety and environment ensure that Britvic have the system in place to guarantee that only products of the highest quality are produced. Products, materials specifications or raw materials are all tested in the laboratory to ensure the quality is at the highest level. They all work closely with relevant legal authorities such as Environment Agency, Health and Safety executive, Food standards Agency and Local Authorities to make sure that everything is as per the rules and law / legislation. 2.6. Procurement: The procurement team has a critical role to play in working collaboratively with all areas of the business. They are responsible to ensure that all goods and services are gaining value for money. Finance: Finance director manages the Central Services function which comprises IT, company secretariat, and risk management, legal and estates and corporate finance and investor relation. 3.1. Finance: this department operates at all heart of the company, working to provide proactive support to all areas of the business by delivering the best return for shareholders. 3.2. IT: We believe in using leading edge technology to exploit business opportunities and create a competitive advantage. Leading technology and to maintain and protect technology platform for growth is an important job of IT team. IT team not only ensure that a company is technologically efficient and smooth running but works in partnership with business managers to identify future opportunities and drive major change incentives. There work has contributed more importantly on improving sales order processing, production and distribution, scheduling and invoicing and cash collection. 3.3. Risk management: This aim s to help the business achieve maximum efficiency wherever possible. 3.4. Legal and Estates: Their important part is to work for all legal issues been sorted out. It may contracts, trademark infringement or property matters. Marketing: Britvic operates in highly competitive industry and manages brands in a way that enables it to match the brand strategies and market tactics to consumer needs. This department is dividing Brand marketing, marketing, innovation, category insight and corporate affairs. 4.1. Brand Marketing: This area of marketing aims to drive brands from Pepsi to Robinsons maximise their brand equity to consumers and value to the shareholders. This team is divided is into three key areas: Robinsons, Carbonates and Adult Water each headed to by Brand Director. 4.2. Marketing: This team enables our commercial plans to be put into action with trade, ensuring smooth working. It manages events and co-ordinates the development of all Britvic extensive artwork. 4.3 Innovation: This team focuses on team predicts and interprets new trends and strives technologies and sees how they can be used to deliver the nest great Britvic product. 4.4. Category Insight: This team is at the heart of the Marketing operation. To understanding and determine the changing needs of the customers. An invaluable function it provides the information that the neighbouring departments needs to base their work on. 4.5. Corporate affairs: This team keeps communication channels open between employees and management while handling Britvics external image. Increasingly it acts as a Liaison with government bodies at home and EU over policy development and proposed legislation. Human Resources: HR mission is to add value through delivering the right people, with right blend of skills and knowledge to grow the business. At HR function is headed by HR director and is divided into three distinct teams. HR business: HR business partners, People Organizational Devel opment and Compensation Benefits. These teams all have individual responsibility but effectively work together. Strategy: This team head by Strategy Director who has responsibility for strategy and planning, including strategic insight and performance management. It develops strategy plans for Britvic for next five year strategy. Annual Plan and performance monitoring and reporting mechanism. Britvic International Ltd: This subsidiary company is responsible for all sales of Britvic brands outside the mainland of UK. Britvic international overseen by it Managing Director, exports to over 50 countries around the world and has employees based in Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Spain. As a focus for investment has launched it product from the Robinsons range in 7 countries in the last 2 years, has plans to expand rapidly over the next 5 years. Diagram 2: https://www.tescosw.eu/Files/organizaÃÆ'Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃâÃ nÃ %20struktura%20EN.pdf Consumer and Customer trends in Britvic: Customer serves the purpose of the business existence. They are the integral part of any organization. For any business to be successful or unsuccessful depends on the customer satisfactions. Britvic serves customers and consumers to the great extent of highest quality. The breadth and depth of Britvics portfolio enables it to target consumer demand across a wide range of consumption occasions, It has extensive and balanced portfolio of stills and carbonates brands such as Robinsons, Pepsi, 7Up, J20 and Fruit Shoot. The strength of Britvic brand portfolio is underpinned by its consumers insight and product development capability which has consistently enabled it to produce innovative products, packaging formats and promotional activity. Britvic has a strong customer base which helps to survive in the competition. In take home, Britvics customers include the Big 4 supermarkets (Tesco, J Sainsbury, Asda and Wm Morrison) together with a number of other important grocery reta ilers. The group has significant supply arrangements with a number of key players in the GB pub sector and Leisure and catering channels. Through introducing brands such as Robinson and Fruit shoot in the market outside GB, Britvic International has built on the success. In 2008, Britvic saw a decline in soft drinks sales as the consumer downturn forced consumers to review their shopping baskets, soft drinks has proved to be resilient but not immune to these pressures. Current trends has seen the plain water, smoothies and pure juice categories come under significant pressure as consumer narrow their soft drinks and seek better value for money. Cola and juice drinks have benefited from shift in consumption. Looking ahead to the longer term we expect soft drinks will grow by around 3% with stills leading the growth. Currently the value share in the take home market is 56% and 44% carbonates. In on promise the value spilt is 47% stills and 53% carbonates, where Task 2 STAKEHOLDERS: According to Gregor Gossy (2008) stakeholder is defined as any identifiable group or individual who can affect the achievement of an organisations objectives or who is affected by the achievement of an organisation objectives Our stakeholders have vested and differing; interest in our business- its performance, its impact, and its broader social responsibilities. Sometimes they are wholly supportive of what we do, at other times, less so. Regardless of their attitude, listening to and understanding their concerns is critical to our own approach to managing or corporate responsibilities. Investors: They are interested in the financial performance and growth strategy, managing risk and responsibilities such as health. There is regular meeting to present trading results which is held every two months in line with a typical financial calendar Consumer: They are interested in the products if they are good and safe to consume. This is improved through conducting focus group, sur vey. They are engaged with the consumer on every day of the calendar year. Customer: They priorities are focused on the buying safe and high quality products. This achieved through meetings and trade media. Regular meeting is held to ensure the work is done. Government: They are more interested if the organization is complying with safety, labelling and marketing regulations, paying taxes and addressing environment impact. This achieved through meeting the needs with government bodies such as DEFRA department of health and the food standards. Employees: They want to know they have a safe, productive and happy environment to work. This engaged through employee opinion surveys and via Employee Involvement Forums. This survey is conducted through employee survey twice a year and at least forums are also held at least twice a year. Suppliers: They are more interested to keep up with consumer trends and new product development, fair trading terms and support on ethical sourci ng. This is achieved through procurement teams and industry groups such as AIM progress. NGOs: They are more interested in a wide range of issues including environment, ethical sourcing and health and well being. Communities: Community that reside close to the operational area, the priority is to have safe communities. Through company policies, employees are engaged to spend time with their local communities. Diagram 3: https://nathaliebellanger.blogspot.com/2008/02/stakeholders-public-and-audiences.html Communication in Britvic: According to Susan Alvare and Diana Dugan (2005) communication is defined as Communication is the exchange of information with others. It is a process of sending and receiving messages. People communicate with signs and symbols, such as words, drawings, and pictures. They also communicate with behaviour. The methods of business communication have rapidly evolved since the early days of business. There are abundant amounts of ways in which business can communicate both internally and externally. Britvic has internal communication involves the communication that exist within a company and can take many form success of an organization is communication from within. Communication is essential internally to achieve goal or objectives. Britvic has strong external communication how a provider interacts with outside their own organization. This includes public, employers, community organization, local authorities, job centres, career offices, and other training. Britvic interact with internal and external people to have an effective management work activities. Management of work activities: In most stages in an organization it is necessary to identify the common management that informs the model of the knowledge action. The companies include both the managers and knowledge workers, and again the researchers acts as facilitators. In order to facilitate the process the following common management roles were used to guide the discussions: Co-ordinator, Leadership, control and measurement. In considering the leadership influences effective management of knowledge assets and knowledge manipulations skills (e.g. Organising training courses) and the creations of conditions that are conducive to sharing relevant information in Britvic (e.g. Networking and Socialising) were explored. Basically the control was considered on the basis of how the management of Britvic manage the provision of knowledge assets including the quality and quantity of the knowledge assets used by Britvic, access and security issues related to confidentiality were on the acquisition of knowledge asse ts. Diagram 4: https://www.palgravejournals.com/ejis/journal/v16/n6/full/3000721a.html New product development: In Britvic, a number of new brands and brand extensions have been launched in the first half of the year all aimed at the growth segments of the market. All innovation launches planned at the time of float have been delivered on time. Three new brands, Drench, Pennine Spring and Fruit Shoot H2O have been successfully delivered on time and are performing in line with management expectation. In pure juice drinks, not from concentrate Britvic squeezed Orange and Pressed Apple juices were launched into the on premises market. Carbonates non added sugar variants continue to grow. Pepsi brand support has hence been focused behind the low calorie; sugar free variant Pepsi Max, the launch of Pepsi Max Cino and 7UP for free. There also been developed two new flavours under the Tango Clear Brand. The best to have product development is through innovation. Innovation will be guided by the consumer trend towards health and well being, developing Britvics significant presence in emerging and faster growing categories including non added sugar carbonates, adult functional, sports drinks and water. Britvic has a strong track record of successful innovation and Business Transformation Programme has ensured a reduction in the time taken from concept to launch by one third enabling new product to market more quickly. Marketing: Consumers are at the heart of our business. What concerns them, concern us. We live in a world in which lifestyles have changed dramatically. Health and well being issues are driving consumers choices. They want products that are more natural and healthier. They are also increasingly interested in the environment footprint the product they buy. Stewart joined the soft drinks company in Feb 2008, replacing high profile marketing chief Andrew Marsden. He did a hard core advertising for the Tango and J2O from CHI Partners, which continues to work on water brand Drench. Britvic evolved Ã £50 million marketing strategy to increase the emphasis on digital. Britvic has been too traditional in its approach. No one can deny that UKs second biggest soft drinks firm has taken risks over recent years as its attempts to diversify beyond carbonates, which are falling out of favour with consumers. In 2005, it launched Drench into the competitive UK water market, and last June introd uced Robinsons Smooth Juice, the first ambient juice sold in plastic packaging. Pepsi Xtra Cold, a patented dispenser system that cools and mixes the cola below the bar, rather than in glass, as a traditional cola and steal share from the market leader Coca Cola. Innovation is an important part of Britvic marketing strategy, according to him, its favourite brand, in terms of Business model is Apple, which is able to get money out of loyalty. TASK 3: Quality Policy: Quality is a basic business principle for Britvic Soft Drinks. We will consistently provide our external and internal customers with products and services which fully meet their expectation of Quality, Safety and Compliance with Legislation. We will achieve Quality through the continuous development of our people, procedure and systems. Chief Executive Paul Moody. Quality Management: Diagram 5: https://www.borealisgroup.com/images/about-us/quality/quality-management-chart.jpg In Britvic, it is very important to maintain high quality in the entire product to be at forehead of the competitors. Soft drink manufacturer adhere to strict water quality standards for allowable dissolved solids, alkalinity, chlorides, sulphates, iron and aluminium. Not only is it in the interest of public health, but clean water also facilitates the production process and maintains consistency in flavour, colour, and body. Microbiology and other testing occur regularly. The national soft drink association and other agencies set standards for regulating the quality of sugar and other ingredients. If the product such as soft drink is produced with low quality sugar, articles in the beverages will spoil it, creating floc. To prevent such spoilage, sugar must be carefully handled dry, sanitized environments. It is crucial for soft drink manufacturers to inspect raw materials before they are mixed with other ingredients because preservatives may not kill all bacteria. All tanks, containers and pumps are washed thoroughly sterilized and continuously monitored. Cans are made of aluminium alloy or tin coated low carbon steel, are lacquered internally to seal the metal and prevent corrosion from contact with the beverage. Soft drink manufacturers also recommend specific storage conditions to retailers to insure that the beverages do not spoil. The shelf life of soft drink is generally at one year. Britvic is committed to operating to the highest standard of food safety and quality. Britvic quality policy is reviewed and agreed by the senior management and disseminated throughout the organization. Britvic has operated and developed its quality systems over many years and has maintained ISO accredited systems since the early1990s. These systems included detail Britvic Technical Codes of Practice for both good manufacturing practice and hazard analy sis and critical control point systems, which are routinely audited by the Central Quality Assurance team. Task 4 Manufacturing sites have also been audited by our Pepsi Franchisor. In order to standardise these audits and reduce audit duplication, all sites have recently gone through the process of obtaining accreditation by EFSIS to the BRC Global Standard- food. The quality of Britvic products in the market is continuously monitored through two key processes. We purchase our own products in a variety of outlets across the country and these are returned to the Central Laboratories for analysis against Quality Specifications and Taste and Appearance. Monthly target are set for compliance and these are linked to individual and team reward schemes. We closely monitor any customer and consumer complaints and react very quickly to any emerging issues. Again targets are set for improvement and monitored monthly, these are linked to individual and team reward schemes and reported every four weeks to the executive committee. Health and Safety: Health and safety continues to be significant public issues and there is important part to play in helping those people that Britvic interact with directly that is consumer who chooses the drinks and for employees to lead healthy and balanced lifestyles. Consumer: Consumer is at the heart of our business. We recognise that we can play a role in addressing some of the health and well being that nation face. This is provided by a wide variety of soft drinks to meet their needs. Marketing the drinks responsibly and promoting health, well being and nutrition. Working with partners: Britvic can make a bigger difference to focus on areas by working with specialist organization and industry bodies and the partner includes MEND (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition, and Do-it) a wide UK wide programme advising families on healthy lifestyles. Business4life a coalition of industry partners, supporting the Governments Change4Life initiative. Task 5 Employees safety means motivated and engaged employees with a good work life balance. People strategy focuses on Leadership, performance, nurturing talent and embedding behaviour essential to personal and business success. The health and Safety of our employees is also crucial and there is stretching annual improvement targets and supporting practices. Britvic policies and actions are designed to develop and support employees, promoting flexibility for all. There is an continue effort to build on the good and health and safety through extensive training and engagement of employees. Health and Safety at the sites: Britvic continues to build on the good health and safety record and actions that have helped to reduce 68% in accidents over last five years and an 81% reduction in working days lost through injury. Recently Huddersfield site of Britvic obtained certification for it Health and Safety Management to OHSAS 18000 and our Rugby site achieved a British Safety Council International Safety Award and RoSPA Gold Award for Safety Every site offers extensive training and focus on the identification of hazards and early correction to avoid potential accidents. An example of this or Rugby factory stopped production for a week to provide it 200 staff with a series of interactive training sessions. The actively week was designed procedure and new health and safety legislation. Throughout the week employees received training on fire extinguisher training and were trained in the principles of first line machine maintenance. Britvic has also launched online safety training, extended acro ss all sites and covers home working, driving and lone travel. Risk Management in Britvic: Risk management process: There is an risk management in place which is an ongoing process for identifying, evaluating and managing the significant risks faced by the group, which has operated throughout the financial year. This process involved a quarterly assessment of Functional risk which is then reviewed and signed off by the group Risk Committee. The groups risk management framework is designed to support this process and is the responsibility of the Group Risk Committee. The risk framework governs the management and control of both financial and non financial risks. The adoption if this policy enables a consistent approach to the management of risk at both regional and business unit level. Through the monitoring processes the board conducted review of the effectiveness of the system of internal control. Risks and Uncertainties that Britvic may face are the as below: Risks relating to the Group: A decline in certain key brands A termination or variation of its bottling and distribution arrangements with Pepsi development in the PepsiCo relationship. A further consolidation in its customer base Any interruption in or change in the terms of, the Groups supply of packaging Any failure in the processes or the IT systems implemented as part of the Business programme. Contamination of raw materials or finished products. Litigation, complaints or adverse publicity in relation to its products. Loss of key employees Any failure of Groups operational infrastructure. Changes in accounting principles or standards Risk relating to the market: A change in consumer preference, perception and / or spending Potential impact of regulatory development. Poor economic conditions and weather Actions taken by competition authorities or private actions in respect of supply or customer arrangements Actions by the Groups competitors Britvic Performance: Our Strategy for Growth Britvic has a clear and focused strategy for growth: Supporting and growing Britvic core brands such as Pepsi, 7UP, Robinson squash, Tango, Fruit Shoot and J20. Innovating and developing the seed brands such as Drench, Gatorade, Raw, V Water and Lipton Iced Tea. Managing efficiency by improving margins and free cash flow. Expanding into Europe ( Britvic International and the first full year of Britvic Ireland Britvic is one of the leading soft drink manufacturers in UK and Ireland. Britvic has grown market share and revenue across all of the categories with a strong performance from both our core and seed brands, despite continued difficult trading conditions. The principal key performance indicators that management uses to assess the performance of the group in addition, volume growth by increasing in number of litres sold by the group relative to prior period, Average Realised Price (ARP) is the average per litre sold, revenue growth is the increased in sales ac hieved by the group relative to prior period. Britvic intends to grow within GB, Ireland as well as internationally: Market Volume growth: It is estimated by Britvic that an average 2-3% market growth per year in the medium and long term. This growth is expected to grow by the stills category as consumers renew their focus on health, wellbeing and a natural agenda. Per capita consumption of purchased soft drinks will be in turn driven by: Cohorting: Younger generations drink more purchased soft drink and less tea, diary drink and tap water than previous generations. Population growth: over the next 20-25 years, the British population is expected to reach 70million from the current population of around 60million. Continuing trend: The per capita soft drink consumption continues to increase against 2% of diary drink, 4 % of hot drink and 8 % of alcoholic drink reduction. Innovation: it typically adds 1.0 2.0 % to Britvic GBs revenue line in a full year. ARP growt h: It is derived from promotional management, product / channel mix and headline price increases. Distribution opportunities: Britvic does not yet have near omnipresent distribution within the GB soft drink market and particularly under trades in attractive routes to market such as convenience, Impulse and Leisure / catering. In Ireland, the structure of the business is now appropriate for a resized soft drink market. While the soft drink market remains challenged in the near term, group wide system, processes and infrastructure will keep the synergy programme on track and give Britvic the right platform to grow when condition ease. Internationally Britvic is focused on two main routes to build its global presence. Through the already successful Britvic International business that only concentrates on export and the travel industry but is also exploring ways to extend the availability of Britvics wholly owned brands worldwide through licensing and franchising arrangements. Through European acquisition of soft drink businesses and assets in order to drive Britvics current portfolio and unlock cost synergies and revenue opportunities across the continent. https://ir.britvic.com/news/regulatory-news/rns-story.aspx?RnsID=1259132443nRn1Y0318D By concentrating on brand management purely within the soft drinks category, a clear growth strategy has led to a material track record of growth that position us well for longer term prospects. The strong performance in Britvic is still portfolio that was driven by: The core brands of Fruit Shoot and Robinsons squash consolidating their position as market leading brands. J2O taking 3.6% value share in the year in the take-home market alone The major launches of the brand extensions, namely Juicy drench and Robinsons Be Natural. Conclusion: Britvic is one of the two leading branded soft drinks businesses in GB and Ireland. It is one of the top two branded soft drinks businesses in the GB take- home channel, is the leading branded soft drinks supplier to the GB licensed on premise channel and is a significant player with a growing presence in the leisure and catering channel. https://ir.britvic.com/~/media/Files/B/Britvic/pdfs/Britivic_AR09_finalLR.pdf Referencing: Hitt, Michael A., R. Duane. Ireland. (2009) Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization. Published by South-Western Cengage Learning. Gossy, Gregor.ÃâÃ (2008) A Stakeholder Rationale for Risk Management. Published by [S.l.]: Gabler. Alvare, Susan. (2005) Job Nursing Assistant Care. Published by Hartman Pub. Britvic Plc Interim Results.[online].cited 22th Jan 2010.Access viahttps://www.britvic.com/PDF/RNSAnnouncementBritvicInterimResults.pdf Bokaie, Jemima. The Marketing Profile: Simon Stewart of Britvic Marketing News Marketing Magazine. [online].cited 22th Jan 2010.Access via https://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/news/822288/Marketing-Profile-Simon-Stewart-Britvic/ The Manufacturing Process of Soft Drink, Quality Control, Recycling. [online].cited 22th Jan 2010.Access via https://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Soft-Drink.html Food safety and Quality.[online].cited 23th Jan 2010.Access viahttps://www.britvic.com/cms/CRAssets/Food%20Safety%20an d%20Quality.pdf Safety, Quality and Environmental of Britvic Policy Statement. [online].cited 23th Jan 2010.Access viahttps://www.britvic.com/cms/CRAssets/Combined%20QSE%20Policy%20Statement%20final%20v7.pdf Healthy Lifestyles Employee Wellbeing Allotment Project. Britvic [online].cited 23th Jan 2010.Access via https://www.britvic.com/CorpCommunity.aspx?WT.svl=SideBar REG-Britvic plc Final Results..[online].cited 24th Jan 2010. Access via https://ir.britvic.com/en/news/regulatory-news/rns- story.aspx?RnsID=1259132715nRn2Y0318D Britvic plc preliminary Results.[online].cited 24th Jan 2010. Access via https://www.britvic.com/PDF/RNS_Nov_08_v12_working_doc.pdf Britvic Corporate Responsibility Report 2009.[online].cited 24th Jan 2010.Access via https://www.britvic.com/cms/CRAssets/CR%20REPORT%202009.pdf Stakeholders, Public and Audiences. [online].cited 25th Jan 2010.Access Via https://nathaliebellanger.blogspot.com/2008/02/stakeholders -public-and- audiences.html Microsoft Case Studies: Britvic Soft Drinks Leading Soft Drinks Company Supports Flexible Working Strategy with Sophisticated Collaborative Technologies. [Online].cited 25th Jan 2010.Access via https://www.microsoft.com/casestudies/Case_Study_Detail.aspx?CaseStudyID=4000001441 Britvic plc Annual Report 2007.[online].cited 25th Jan 2010. Access via https://ir.britvic.com/en/results-presentations/results-presentations/~/media/Files/B/Britvic/pdfs/results-2007/Annual%20Report%202007%20%20211207.ashx Britvic Code of Conduct Policy.[online].cited 25th Jan 2010. Access via https://www.britvic.com/cms/CRAssets/Code%20of%20Conduct%20Policy.pdf Britvics Efficiency of Operations.[online].cited 25th Jan 2010. Access via https://www.britvic.com/cms/CRAssets/case%20studies%20Efficiency%20of%20Operations.pdf https://www.britvic.com/CorpSupply.aspx?WT.svl=SideBar to write answer for operation management of work activitie s. https://ir.britvic.com/~/media/Files/B/Britvic/pdfs/Britivic_AR09_finalLR.pdf to write answer fro page number 19 about future planning. https://ir.britvic.com/news/regulatory-news/rns-story.aspx?RnsID=1259132443nRn1Y0318D to write about the future planning of Britvic in at the end of it https://britvic.production.investis.com/news/regulatory-news/rns-story.aspx?RnsID=1227682919nRn1Z9517I just check the site https://www.britvic.com/PDF/RNSAnnouncementBritvicInterimResults.pdf just check the site https://www.scribd.com/doc/24448453/Evaluate-the-Impact-of-Operations-Management-on-Decision-Making good site to write about the operation management. https://www.competition-commission.org.uk/rep_pub/reports/1991/fulltext/309c7.pdf just the site. Just conclusion and managing work activities.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Emotional Intelligence, Conflict Management Styles and Organizational Job Performance of Bank Employees Dhivya.D* and U.Gowri** Till recently, Intelligence Quotient is considered as a measure of excellence. In the current business world IQ and technical abilities alone not help to succeed in the work. Emotional intelligence also plays an important role in the workplace. Emotional intelligence is the capacity to identify, manage and assess emotions of a person. In this fastest and competitive world, individual competencies are considered as a measure of excellence which determines the overall success of an organization. Emotionally Intelligent people are more skilled to cope up with life activities and have more productive thinking. Awareness of emotional change will help to overcome the stressful situation in both personal and professional life. Largely, in the customer service industry, Emotional Intelligence is being observed as one of the important emerging determinants for dealing with customers. Emotional intelligence is not an inborn characteristic, so it can be learnt through practice and training. Ban king is one of the service sectors which require more relationship between employees and customers. The success of the relationship depends on the level of emotional intelligence and conflict management ability of the employees. The promotion of emotional development in turn enhances job performance of the employees. Therefore, this study makes an attempt to knowShow MoreRelatedEmotional Intelligence And The Mind Team1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to Smit The Mind Team (n.d), Emotional Intelligence is the ability to recognize your emotions, understand what they re telling you, and realize how your emotions affect people around you. 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Task 4: An analysis of theories relating to work relationships and interaction. Please consider these as a report: Leadership theories: For decades, leadership theories have been the source of numerous studies. In reality as well as in practice, many have tried toRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesOrganizational Behavior This page intentionally left blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins Ã¢â¬âSan Diego State University Timothy A. Judge Ã¢â¬âUniversity of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! 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An analysis of how motivational theory can inform employee motivation 4. An analysis of theories relating to work relationships and interaction Report Evaluation of leadership theories There are various theories of leadership and they each carry their own values for decades now. To become a successful leader one must not only understand but learn to follow them as well. Leadership should be distinguished from management. Management involvesRead MoreSkill5329 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesand Organizational Commitment (Case Study: Jahad Keshavarzi and University of Qom, Iran) Hassan Zarei Matin Associate Professor, University of Tehran, Iran Golamreza Jandaghi Associate Professor, University of Tehran, Iran Fateme Haj Karimi Graduate, Public Management, University of Tehran, Iran Ali Hamidizadeh Graduate, Public Management, University of Tehran, Iran Abstract The aim of this paper is to identify the interpersonal communication skills that enhance organizational commitmentRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesis an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S.Read More Emotional intelligence: The rapprochement of reason and emotion5515 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesA notion central to emotional intelligence theory is that individuals differ in their ability to perceive, understand and use emotional information, and this ability significantly contributes to intellectual and emotional well-being and growth. Emotional intelligence as a concept has prospered, in part, because of the increasing personal importance of emotion management for individuals in modern society. Indeed, researchers have commonly claimed that emotional intelligence predicts important educational
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Daniel Kim 12-5-11 Honors English, period 5 High school essay Educators have been recently debating whether or not to extend the four years of high school to five years. They have argued that students need the extra year to have more time to achieve all that is expected of them. Yet, others have argued that the percentage of high school dropouts would increase, because the students would lose interest in their education, and will eventually drop out of high school. We will write a custom essay sample on 5 Year High School or any similar topic only for you Order Now Considering all the pros and cons, such as economics, student voice, and curricular plan, sustaining the school year duration of four years would be the most sufficient choice. High schools do have a limited amount of money that is accessible to them. Most schools already struggle to keep the required four years of education in their system. Adding another year would devastate many schools in the United States of America. High schools would have to make major decisions to cut funds in categories such as sports, materials, and hours in a school day. Not to mention that having another whole class of roughly 300 students would require more staff, consequently costing the district more money. Students should have a part in making the decision to either keep the current four-year curriculum, or to extend it to five years. If school boards do decide to extend the duration of high schools without the opinions of high school students themselves, students surely would not just sit quietly about the decision. Four years is plenty of time to achieve what students need to learn in high school. Instead of looking at the decision to increase the duration of high school, educators should be looking at how to increase the efficiency of education throughout the four years of high school. Although adding a whole year of high school would allow teachers more room to teach what they are required to teach, it can also disrupt the smooth flow of education that is being handed to us already. Students who already entered college would be behind a year of education. Educators argued that colleges would like to see high school students develop more in a longer period of time, but having five years of high school would shorten the numbers of students in each class, and when it comes to their senior year, the population would be extremely low. Reviewing the cons of adding another school year to high school, it is clear that educators should not intervene with the current four-year duration of high school. Educators must look at this decision in different perspectives, such as the views of students, because this decision could result in one of the biggest mistakes in education. How to cite 5 Year High School, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Managing Global Megaprojects Management. Answer: Introduction: As mentioned by Mir and Pinnington (2014), in order to successfully complete a project, it is important to apply accurate knowledge along with skills for perfectly implementing the same. The entire process of directing and controlling the activities within a project can be divided into five main phases. In the initial phase, initiation and conception of the project is done. It will be important to analyse the benefits of initiating the project for the society and Organisation. There will be a decision making team, who will investigate upon the practical application of the proposed project. In the next phase the project will be defined by implementing effective plan. The planning phase is also believed to be the most important step of project management. The success rate of the project is entirely dependent upon the initial plan that has been implemented. This planning will include the budget and the schedule for the project along with allocating the resources that are needed in the following phases. The next step of the project is about launching execution of the plan. In this type all the resources of the project will be equally distributed among all the teams and members involved in completion of the project. Important project related information also need to be shared with every members of the project team (Pinto 2014). In the following step, it is the duty of the project manager to ensure and monitor the progress of the project. It is highly recommended for them to prepare a project report, which will have the evidence of the current status of the project. The project managers can also bring about necessary changes, which is required to deal with few of the barriers. The members of the project can also discuss the issues there encountering with the project manager and thereby implement proper intervention steps. It is also the duty of the project manager to ensure that all activities of the project are completed within the scheduled time. The final step is about project clos ure. In this type, the client group will approve the project and evaluate the same. The client can also demand for new changes within the project if they are not satisfied with the overall activity. It is important to follow all the steps properly in order to successfully complete any type of project, which are aimed for the development of the society or an organisation. As mentioned by Serra and Kunc (2015), it is not only important to prepare the plan for the project or have perfect knowledge, it is also essential to ensure that the knowledge is being utilised properly to deal with all forms of challenges within the step of project. Critical factors for failure in project management The complexity of different type of projects in Engineering or management work are believed to be the prime cause or critical factors for project management failure. As mentioned in the report of Qubaisi et al. (2015), more than 50% case of incomplete or a successful project is due to the fact of shortage in the fund. During the time of project planning, it may not be possible for the project managers to estimate the perfect budget due to the lack of experience or any unfavourable external business environment. In many of the cases, it may also not be possible for the project managers to evaluate all forms of risks that are involved within the project. Hence it can be said that poor forms of leadership by the project managers are mainly responsible for ineffective project planning. The managers are also responsible for not having the ability to deal with several number of workers, who are involved in the path of project activity. Inaccurate documentation or monitoring system that are implemented by the project management group is also one of the major cause of project failure. As the managers are not properly able to track the project planning and the progress, it may not be possible for them to ensure that all the project activities are completed properly. Once an important project is being delayed, the project manager and team members have to face with the extra pressure of handling the negative impact and pressure from the management group or the client. In the part of Middle East, there has been huge number of records in completed project work in regions of Abu Dhabi (El-Sayegh and Mansour 2016). The lack of coordination between the project team members and workers are believed to be one of the prime cause of project failures in the areas. It is highly essential for the project workers and managers of the construction industry to properly define each and every step involved in the project and implement effective communication strategy in order to develop proper coordination. The scope of the project is highly dependent upon the communication techniques that are being implemented within the project team. The life cycle of the project is also highly dependent upon the scope that are being developed within the project activity. In the regions of Middle East, and in places of Abu Dhabi the project team manager of construction or Engineering Works have to face barriers and limitations due to the external business and political environmen t. In many of the cases, the government is not able to take the initiative to support the need of the project management workers. This is mainly due to the fact of the unstable political environment in the region, where it is not possible for the project management team to seek proper support from the government in a form of perfect government policy. It is relevant to mention that UAE, is currently considered to be one of the quickly developing economy in the Middle East region. From the period of 1990, the Government of UAE has initiated several social and construction project works, which are responsible for the current economic development of the nation. However, as per mentioned in the report of AL Mousli and El-Sayegh (2015), more than half of the engineering or construction project in Abu Dhabi region are delayed. This is causing a loss of 170 million dollars every year. There are several causes of the delay or in completion of this project work that can be classified into different categories based on the nature of loss. Lack of funding from the government or private agencies is believed to be the prime cause of project delay in Abu Dhabi. The mismanagement of cash flow along with your initial planning are mainly responsible for this delays in construction work. There is also the factor of unfavourable weather situation, w hich is also one of the prime factor of project failures. In many cases the project managers are not able to evaluate the critical activities that are associated with every type of project activities. Sequencing of the activities involved in project construction work is one of the major critical factor for failure. During the middle of a project activity, the project manager may decide to change the project works. Due to the unfavourable political environment in the region of Abu Dhabi, it is highly challenging for the project workers to implement the change. It can also be noted that due to the poor leadership, it may not be possible for the Government of the UAE to properly allocate the task of project management to each team. There is certain type of delays which are caused due to change in the demand from the client group. Hence, this form of delay is considered to be excusable from the project management team. In certain cases, the project management team may demand new funding due to the change in the work of construction. However, in case of non-excusable delays which are caused due to the in efficiency of the contractors, it is not possible for the project management team to claim extra funding from the client group. The slow process of decision making in the regions of Abu Dhabi is believed to be one of the prime cause of project failures or incomplete project work (Rees-Caldwell and Pinnington 2013). An entrepreneurial insight The prime duty of an entrepreneur to overcome the delay in project management work is to provide effective leadership quality. This can be managed in the form of dealing with the resource and properly allocating the same during the initial phases (Chen 2015). It is also the duty of the entrepreneur or the Project leader to properly communicate with all groups of project workers. In order to properly complete project work in regions of Abu Dhabi it is essential for the project leader to consider all the unfavourable business conditions. This can be achieved in the form of implementing proper risk evaluation tool. The process of implementing the tool is to properly collect data from all primary sources, which includes all the statistical information from current project work in Abu Dhabi. It is also the duty of the Project leader to properly communicate with the Government of Abu Dhabi region, which will help them to understand all the barriers that can compromise up on the project qua lity and cause delay (Kardes et al. 2013). As an entrepreneur, it is highly essential to provide the correct form of leadership and bring about change in project management activities. This will help to ensure the allocated fund of the project are being properly utilised. Research philosophy is believed to be the path or protocol that are being followed by the researchers to collect and evaluate the overall relevant data. In positivism results philosophy the investigators properly analyse the real situation associated with the subject area of research. For the current investigation work analysing the present situation of all project work in Abu Dhabi will help the researchers to identify the cause of delay on incomplete project work. It is also possible to implement the interpretivism research philosophy, which will allow the investigators to properly interpret the real situation depending upon the collected data. Three Types of Research Design including descriptive, exploratory and interpretive can be applied in all investigation works. For the current research for the investigator will implement the descriptive form of Research Design, which will help them to analyse the data for cause of delays of project work in Abu Dhabi. The strategy for the research is to follow a definite framework that will help the investigator to identify all the issues related to the research topic (Taylor et al. 2015). Effective research strategy in the form of qualitative and quantitative form of data analysis will be implemented for a current research work. This is highly essential for analysing all background information for the causes of delay in project work in Abu Dhabi. The current research work will implement both primary and secondary form of Data Collection. The primary data will be collected from the interview of project managers and government officials, who are involved in different type of construction and engineering project in Abu Dhabi. On the other hand, secondary data will be collected from all previously conducted research works related to project management in Abu Dhabi. The researcher will implement non probability sampling technique. The researchers will conduct interview with 10 project managers and government officials who are involved in various form of construction and engineering project activities in Abu Dhabi. The expected outcome for the following research work will be to identify all the specific causes of delay when completed project work in regions of Abu Dhabi. The research work will also be able to estimate accurately the total funds amount, which are being lost due to in completed or delay in project work. It will also be possible for the researchers to provide and entrepreneur overview of implementing proper intervention steps to prevent failures in project management work in Abu Dhabi. Proper statistical data will also be analysed, which will help to classify all the causes of delay depending upon the nature and type of loss encountered. Timescale Total time of the research will be 3 years Research Steps Month 1-3 Month 4-9 Month 10-15 Month 16-22 Month 23-30 Month 31-34 Month 35-36 Topic Selection Data collection from Primary sources Creating Research Design Relevant Literature Plan of research Framework Selecting Appropriate Research Design Secondary data collection Interpretation of Collected data using quantitative and qualitative tools Findings from the data Drawing Conclusion Draft Submission Submission of the final report Reference AL Mousli, M.H. and El-Sayegh, S.M., 2016. Assessment of the designconstruction interface problems in the UAE. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 12(5), pp.353-366. Chen, H.L., 2015. Performance measurement and the prediction of capital project failure. International Journal of Project Management, 33(6), pp.1393-1404. El-Sayegh, S.M. and Mansour, M.H., 2015. Risk assessment and allocation in highway construction projects in the UAE. Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(6), p.04015004. Kardes, I., Ozturk, A., Cavusgil, S.T. and Cavusgil, E., 2013. Managing global megaprojects: Complexity and risk management. International Business Review, 22(6), pp.905-917. Mir, F.A. and Pinnington, A.H., 2014. Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success. International journal of project management, 32(2), pp.202-217. Pinto, J.K., 2014. Project management, governance, and the normalization of deviance. International Journal of Project Management, 32(3), pp.376-387. Qubaisi, J.M.M.L.F.A., Elanain, H.M.A., Badri, M.A. and Ajmal, M.M., 2015. Leadership, culture and team communication: analysis of project success causality-a UAE case. International Journal of Applied Management Science, 7(3), pp.223-243. Rees-Caldwell, K. and Pinnington, A.H., 2013. National culture differences in project management: Comparing British and Arab project managers' perceptions of different planning areas. International Journal of Project Management, 31(2), pp.212-227. Serra, C.E.M. and Kunc, M., 2015. Benefits realisation management and its influence on project success and on the execution of business strategies. International Journal of Project Management, 33(1), pp.53-66. Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley Sons.
Monday, March 30, 2020
Introduction Pre-employment screening is an obligatory stage of the hiring procedures that allows the employers to identify what skills and abilities future applicants should possess to accomplish the goals of established in organization. Pre-employment procedure serves as a tool for managers to deal with all levels of human resource management.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Pre-employment Screening in Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The importance of pre-employment procedures is also historically predetermined by the necessity of enhancing public safety. The applicant adjustment to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s staff is premised on successful investigation process of future employees. The transitive nature of selection, recruitment, and training determines future success of an organization, as well as influences the planning process. There are various trends and approaches to pre-employment tests that depend on the purposes, organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements, and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ future responsibilities. In general, the procedure is premised on two strategies Ã¢â¬â pre-screening background assessment and post-interview background checks. The first stage of evaluation is based on the interviews whereas post-interview monitoring should involve filling out the application form and conducting psychological and medical examination of potential employees. Therefore, in order to understand the main aspects of pre-employment checking, as well as define what criteria should be included into the procedure, a review of literature should be conducted. The focus is on medical, ethical, and public safety concerns that can be considered through efficient pre-employment screening procedures. Literature Review Pre-employment screening denotes the process of analyzing backgrounds of future employees. The procedure is aimed at checking the accuracy of applicantsÃ¢â¬â¢ skills, as well as at discovering any possible workers compensation claims, criminal history, and employer sanctions. Apart from personal background evaluation, there are many other concerns for analyzing the process of pre-employment screening, including public safety issues, assessment of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills, experience, and defining new paths for development of an organizational culture. According to Colaprete (2012), the hiring process should be accompanied with the inspection of the criminal background, as well as psychological profile. In addition, the researcher has stressed, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the results of poor hiring practices have forced many law enforcement agencies to reevaluate their personnel selection and employment practices and standardsÃ¢â¬ (Colaprete, 2012, p. 4).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is highly important for employers to develop a detailed plan of assessment that provides a wide picture of applicantsÃ¢â¬â¢ drawbacks. Moreover, the employers should be aware of the consequences of inappropriate screening for the rest of organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s staff. While developing the pre-employment screening inspection, specific attention can also be paid to the analysis of problematic Internet use. In this respect, Davis et al. (2002) have developed the research studies in which they investigate the relation between social rejection and problem Internet use. The scholars have introduced four dimensions of problematic use of virtual space, including distraction, social comfort, loneliness, and aggressiveness. Inappropriate internet use, therefore, can be a decisive factor in estimating potential employees before applying them for a job. Similar concerns are presented in the research studies by Peebles (2012) who considers that hiring process should be carefully outlined and developed to reduce the number of risks to the already employed in dividuals. In fact, employers should be aware that the Internet does not only provide a handful of important information about potential employees, but also allows them to confront a new dimension of legal issues. According to Peebles (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"an analysis of negligent hiring Ã¢â¬â a tort that allows third parties to hold employers responsible for the harmful acts of their employees suggest that employers may actually have duty to search the InternetÃ¢â¬ (p. 1399). Therefore, pre-employment screening can imply pre-screening of the Internet because the searching process benefits the employees from acquiring online information about prospective employees. Such a strategy imposes a sort of liability on the applicants as well. Negligent recruitment can create serious consequences for companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future development, welfare, and productivity. In this respect, Wang and Kleiner (2000) focus on the most common mistakes that employees make while hiring new employees. The emph asis is placed on poor monitoring of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ adherence to ethical codes, as well as identification of crimes in the workplace (Wang and Kleiner, 2000). The development of efficient pre-employment screening, therefore, is indispensible for ensuring a healthy environment in an organization and developing a strong corporate culture. In addition, the legality of procedure is also introduced to enhance the safety in the employed environment.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Pre-employment Screening in Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sorgdrager et al. (2004) have paid closer attention to the analysis of the effectiveness of pre-employment screening concerning the three basic indicators. These dimensions involve a positive test results, pre-employment medical examinations, and occurrence of rejections for the job. All these indicators illustrate usefulness and feasibility of pre-employment screeni ng and identify possible corrections for the test. In this respect, Sorgdrager et al. (2004) agree with the idea that there should be the evaluation of specific health conditions of employees and, therefore, medical examination should be part of the pre-employment screening. The scholars also admit, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦evaluation of effectiveness of interventions is an essential but often neglected task of occupational health careÃ¢â¬ (Sorgdrager et al., 2004, p. 275). Therefore, assessment of the most common risk is essential for predicting contingencies in the workplace. Despite the awareness of potential risks, some employers are reluctant to resort to the pre-employment checking procedures before the application form is filled out. Mathis and Jackson (2011) attain much importance to the selection interviews because this type of screening Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦is done both to obtain additional information and to clarify information gathered throughout the selection processÃ¢â¬ (p. 94). T he stages of conducting an interview are important to arrange because it will allow the employer to understand whether employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills, experience, and psychological profile corresponds to the previously established requirements. More importantly, there should be strict standards in accordance with which employees are selected. There are many formats, templates, and principles according to which pre-employment screening tests are developed. In this respect, Lanyon and Goodstein (2004) have introduced the Counterproductive Behavior Index (CBI) that evaluates five patterns of counterproductive behavior in the workplace, including dependability concerns, substance abuse, honesty concerns, computer abuse, and aggression. By means of this assessment, it is also possible to work a Good Impression Scale. The five indicators of counterproductive behavior have been successful and, therefore, this kind of test can be employed in evaluating employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ aptness to work. The evalu ation of applicants in terms of the values and moral codes they uphold is also of high importance for employers because they allow to define immediately whether their values coincide with those presented in an organization. In this respect, Pawlowski and Hollwitz (2000) insist that employees judge on how company meets their moral concerns and needs during the application process.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These judgments also help them to define Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the attractiveness of the organization, the likelihood of accepting a position offer, and the incidence of litigation arising from selection, training, and compensation proceduresÃ¢â¬ (p. 59). Therefore, the attitude to organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s fairness influences of a variety of outcomes, including turnover rates, organizational commitment, reactions to subordination, job satisfaction, and behavioral patterns in the workplace. Under these circumstances, pre-employment screening is incredibly important to companies because this procedure can help them identify an appropriate measure, which should be both inexpensive and efficient. Similar to Sorgdrager et al. (2004) who express their concern with ethical and safety issues, Pawlowski and Hollwitz (2000) assert that introducing honesty tests is helpful, but it does not provide sufficient measures for assessing workplace ethics for several reasons. First of all, these measures are not cost effective. An alternative to this measure could be a structured interview in which questions will be built in a way so that employees can be checked for honesty of their responses. Second, ethical integrity interviews can legally reinforce the pre-employment screening, which imposes certain responsibilities on employers. Finally, workplace ethics should also be considered in a broader sense to define that the screening procedure itself is honest. With regard to the above-presented research, most scholars support the idea that pre-employment screening is a multi-dimensional procedure, which involves legal, ethical, physical, and psychological requirements. In this respect, legal perspective of analysis implies evaluating employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ criminal history, as well as their inclination to break the law. Second, employers should take control of medical screening employees, which implies monitoring psychological profile and behavioral patterns. The main challenge of arranging p re-employment screening lies in the cost-effectiveness analysis of its specific types. Finally, efficiency of pre-employment practices can have a potent impact on the welfare of organization and the overall climate in the employed environment. Summary The above-presented synthesis of literature on pre-employment screening procedures has defined new directions at improving efficiency, validity, and reliability of the application process. To begin with, potential employees should undergo a multi-stage process to measure the physical, mental, and social aptness of an applicant to work in a specific setting. Further, the presence of screening procedures does not guarantee that the employees correspond to the standards established in an organization and, therefore, the task of the employers is to strike the balance between pre-employment procedures and the missions of an organization. Further, the role of the screening lies in ensuring public safety of the employees who have already been accepted for a job position. However, while evaluating applicantsÃ¢â¬â¢ characteristics, it is important for managers to adhere to the legislature and ethics of conducting interviews. The ethical dilemmas specifically concern the applicantsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights to conceal personal information, which creates a number of problems for employers. Despite this challenge, assessment of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ psychological profile and honesty can contribute to the decision-making process. Finally, most research studies have been dedicated to the assessment of various types of screening procedures Ã¢â¬â from structured interviews to personal tests. Specific attention requires Counterproductive Behavior Index that allows managers to define the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ negative features and reduce the potential risk for their organizational culture. Such an approach is beneficial because it allows to predict the outcomes employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior and prevent any risk to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ welfare. Theref ore, the report introduces the current trends in developing pre-employment screening, as well as defines the influence of these tests on the recruitment process. References Colaprete, F. A. (2012). Pre-Employment Background Investigations for Public Safety Professionals. US: CRC Press. Davis, R. A., Flett, G. L., Besser, A. (2002). Validation of a New Scale for Measuring Problematic Internet Use: Implications for Pre-employment Screening. CyberPsychology Behavior, 5(4), 331-345. Lanyon, R. I., Goodstein, L. D. (2004). Validity and Reliability of a Pre-Employment Screening Test: The Counterproductive Behavior Index (CBI). Journal Of Business And Psychology, (4), 533-553. Mathis, R. L., Jackson, J. H. (2011). Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives. New York: Cengage Learning. Pawlowski, D. R., Hollwitz, J. (2000). Work Values, Cognitive Strategies, and Applicant Reactions in a Structured Pre-Employment Interview for Ethical Integrity. Journal Of Business Communication, 37(1), 58-76. Peebles, K. A. (2012). Negligent Hiring And The Information Age: How State Legislatures Can Save Employers From Inevitable Liability. William Mary Law Review, 53(4), 1397-1433. Sorgdrager, B., Hulshof, T. J., Dijk, F. J. H. (2004). Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pre-employment Screening. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 77(4), 271-276. Wang, J.-M., Kleiner, B. H. (2000) Effective employment screening practices, Management Research News, 23(5/6), 73-81. This report on Pre-employment Screening in Management was written and submitted by user Izayah Oneal to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Pre If we talk about the best and the most influential composers of all the times, Johann Sebastian Bach is one of the first names that have to be mentioned. This German composer and organist created plenty of unbelievable works, which presented the Baroque period in all its glory.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Pre-Concert Talk about Johann Sebastian Bach specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In comparison to many other composers of the 17th, 18th, and 19th, BachÃ¢â¬â¢s life and career has quite limited boundaries from Eisenach to Leipzig. However, his works and ideas are known to the whole world and arouse interest of many people with different cultures and preferences. His The Well-Tempered Clavier and Three Collections of Dance Suites are probably the greatest intellectual treasures all over the world. These keyboard works have their own peculiarities and captivate both the listeners and the performers. Without an y doubts, lots of pianists prefer to use the works by Bach during their performances, but they do not completely comprehend their style and background. Such lack of understanding turns out to be the major reason of why the same works may be presented and comprehended in many different ways. This is why it is crucially important to know the background of each musical work and be able to analyze its style. This time, two above-mentioned BachÃ¢â¬â¢s works will be under our consideration. In BachÃ¢â¬â¢s life, there are three major periods: Weimar, CÃ ¶then, and Leipzig. During each of these periods, Bach created more and more captivating works and amazed people with his abilities to choose the best things in the world and represent them by means of music. Ã¢â¬Å"It was in Weimar that this remarkable process of self-education culminated in consummate mastery and the crystallization of BachÃ¢â¬â¢s personal style which be then had evolved as the synthesis of the international musica l legacies.Ã¢â¬ 1 The Well-Tempered Clavier is considered to be one of the brightest works during this period.Advertising Looking for report on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is Ã¢â¬Å"much more than a compendium of contrapuntal devices, a role belonging more properly to the Art of Fugue.Ã¢â¬ 2 In order to comprehend this work and be ready to read it, taking into consideration every detail, it is very important to analyze certain theoretical background and be aware of meaning of such notions like Ã¢â¬Ëequal temperamentÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëjust intonationÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËpreludeÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËfugueÃ¢â¬â¢. There are two volumes, which present a prelude and a fugue in every key, major and minor. A prelude is a quite short piece of music that may change its form depending on the whole masterpiece. Preludes usually serve as introductory parts to succeeding movements of the rest of the work or as sep arate pieces of works. The prelude consists of several repeating rhythmic motifs, so that it may considerably influence the general perception of the work. At the beginning of the 17th century, German composers started uniting preludes with another type of contrapuntal technique of a work, a fugue. The combination of preludes and fugues gained its recognition in numerous BachÃ¢â¬â¢s works. Bach liked to participate in different events, where composers had to create and introduce fugues on organs or harpsichords in a short period of time. German composers wanted to move toward expression by means of huge harmonic changes and had a need of wider tonality realm. Without any doubts, BachÃ¢â¬â¢s Well-Tempered Clavier serves as a good example of this musical tuning, known to lots of people as Ã¢â¬Å"just intonationÃ¢â¬ . It is a kind of system, Ã¢â¬Å"in which all the intervals are derived from the natural (pure) firth and the natural (pure) third.Ã¢â¬ 3 Nowadays, well temperamen ts are replaced by another system of tuning that is called Ã¢â¬Å"equal temperamentsÃ¢â¬ , where only octaves considered to be pure intervals. Sebastian Bach could not agree that equal treatment should take such an important place.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Pre-Concert Talk about Johann Sebastian Bach specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ã¢â¬Å"The more mathematically minded writers on equal temperament have given the impression that extreme accuracy in figures is the all-important thing in equal temperaments, even if it is patent that such accuracy cannot be obtained upon the longest feasible monochord.Ã¢â¬ 4 Of course, the results of BachÃ¢â¬â¢s own tuning deserve peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s recognition and analysis. In 1722, Bach started the creation of the first book of The Well-Tempered Clavier and the first cycle of different compositions in this very conception. The prelude in C Major that is followed by th e fugue in C Major starts Book I. Then, the prelude and fugue in C Minor follow. Each pair of prelude and fugue is presented in the chromatic scale till the last key. Book II was completed in 1744. More experienced and more educative Bach made a wonderful attempt to continue his work and add more interesting details to it. He wanted to achieve one of his cherished goals during the creation of this Well-Tempered Clavier Ã¢â¬â to prove the feasibility of well temperament for each composition in every key. However, it was not the only purpose of Bach. He was also eager to clear up how progressive work might contain some conservative ideas. This is why The Well-Tempered Clavier may be analyzed as a great source of information about various historical styles and idioms. It is necessary to admit that ornamentation played a very important role in the sphere of music during the 17th and 18th centuries. Lots of BachÃ¢â¬â¢s written-out notes may be regarded as ornamentation examples. Orn amentation in BachÃ¢â¬â¢s compositions helps to comprehend better different melodic events and make them more beautiful. People, who cannot notice any pieces of ornamentation, may see only a kind of surface layer of all the notes presented by the composer. The table of ornaments, offered by Bach in 1720 describes almost all commonly used ornaments: turn, appoggiatura and trill, ascending trill, etc. 5Advertising Looking for report on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Without any doubts, The Well-Tempered Clavier created by Bach is considered to be the greatest work of the Weimar period. In spite of the fact that this composition was created during the Baroque period, it had a considerable impact on Western classical music. For lots of people, who deal with music, both theorists and composers, this masterpiece remains a good sources of various musical techniques, which were so inherent to the Baroque style. Bach tried to unite unbelievable things or just the things, the combination of which was still unknown to the composers of the 17th century. When people listen to The Well-Tempered Clavier, they get a wonderful opportunity to enjoy unbelievable sounds and ideas. However, without proper awareness of such issues as equal temperament, just intonation, prelude, fugue, and different types of ornamentation, a professional musician will hardly evaluate this piece of work and find out what exactly the creator wants to represent to his listeners. Anoth er BachÃ¢â¬â¢s work that deserves our attention and requires deep consideration is Three Collections of Dance Suites: The English Suites (BWV 806-811), the French Suites (BWV 812-817) and the Partitas for Keyboard (BWV 825-830). In order to comprehend why Bach chose a certain style for his work, it is better to analyze the backgrounds of each of dance suite and clear up their tempos. There are so many kinds of dance suites like the allemande, the sarabande, the gavotte, or the bourree, and each of them has its own peculiarities and influences the further development of the masterpiece. Ã¢â¬Å"The suite is usually denotes a cycle (or series) of dance pieces changing in tempo and meter yet preserving key unity throughout.Ã¢â¬ 6 The dance suite appeared in the 17th century and was one of the most famous discoveries of the Baroque Era. The Baroque dance suiteÃ¢â¬â¢s major components, which are performed in one and the same key, are a prelude (it has already been discussed), the a llemande, courante, sarabande, intermezzi (consisting of minuet, gavotte, or some other dance), and gigue. Usually, al these components turn out to be dependant on the composerÃ¢â¬â¢s wish. If he/she wants to make the work really captivating, it is crucially important to think about the possible combinations and represent them in the composition. To make the right decision, it is necessary to be aware about the background of each dance suite and its tempo. First of all, it is better to remember that: Allemande has German origins and is represented within quadruple meter. The tempo of this movement is quite moderate and starts with an upbeat. Courante has more French origins and is characterized by quicker tempo in comparison to allemande, and presented in triple meter. If we look at the French dictionary, we will see that courante means run. According to such a simple translation, it is easier to guess a nature of this very movement. Sarabande is probably one of the slowest types of dance suite. It has Spanish origins and is performed in triple meter. Gigue attracts people attention by its fast tempo and lively atmosphere. This dance suite came from England, and its peculiar features are numerous triplets and a certain number of wide leaps. This very dance suite starts with eight meter. These four movements were the major components of the suites during the times of Bach. It was also possible to add several optional movements, which may be placed between the sarabande and gigue. In Three Collections of Dance Suites, Bach preferred to use bourree, gavotte, minuet, and prelude, of course. Ã¢â¬Å"His music speaks of initial hesitancy followed by confidenceÃ¢â¬ 7, this is why his unbelievably right choice of components for the suites always amazes the listener. Almost all additional movements have French origins: bourree is characterized as lively dance, gavotte is a kind of moderately fast dance, and minuet is elegant French dance with three even beats perf ormed in triple time. The minuet is the dance suite, which was the most preferable one by Sebastian Bach. In his Collection of Dance Suites, each collection consists of six suites. The model to each collection is quite standard: prelude, allemande, courante, sarabande, optional movement, and gigue. However, it is necessary to admit that Bach did not like to follow the rules precisely, but still could not create absolutely different pieces of music, this is why each collection has something in common that corresponds to the general model, and something different that underline the uniqueness of each collection. The English Suites are one of those, which closely follow the ordinary model. All six suites have the prelude, allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue. Between the gigue and sarabande, each suite presents own optional movement: bourree (1st and 2nd suites in A major and minor), gavotte (3rd suite in G minor), minuet (4th suite in F major), passepied (5th suite in E Minor), a nd again gavotte (for 6th suite in D Minor). The French Suite does not have the prelude, but presents more movements between the gigue and the sarabande. This is why some of the French Suites have 5 movements (the 1st suite), 7 movements (2nd, 3rd, and 5th suites), and even 8 movements (4th and 6th suites). The Partitas for Keyboard is interesting due to its introductory movements and the variety of movements between basic elements of the whole model. The first suite has the standard model with the prelude and minuet. The 2nd suite has sinfonia as the introductory movement, and rondeau and capriccio as the final movements. The following four suites have quite different structures represented in the same key. After we look at the structures of each BachÃ¢â¬â¢s suites, we can easily find out the differences and the peculiarities of each of them. It is impossible to say that some suite is better or worse than the other is. It is rather understandable that the beginning of the composi tion is a bit simple in order to provide the listener with a chance to feel the melody and create the general picture of the events. With each suite, Bach adds more and more movements. Such addition may be compared with the development of a person. With time, a human learns something new and enlarge his/her knowledge, he/she meets new people, and tries to make this life better than it is. Almost the same happens in BachÃ¢â¬â¢s compositions. With time, each suite is enlarged with one or more movements. They influence the suite in its peculiar way and make the listener feel something that has not been inherent before. Johann Sebastian BachÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution into music during the Baroque Era remains to be rather considerable. People all over the world get a wonderful chance to enjoy his magnificent compositions. Ã¢â¬Å"His personal stamp onÃ¢â¬ 8the old forms of suites added something really new to the further development of classical music. Even if Bach was a bright represent ative of the Baroque Era, his impact on Classical music is also great. It is impossible to analyze his works after listening them for one or two times. To grasp all the ideas, which Bach wanted to reproduce, it is better to learn their backgrounds and pay attention to each detail in the composition. Each suite in BachÃ¢â¬â¢s compositions has different components. These movements make the work sweeter, and the addition more and more different movements to each suite is a wining decision of the composer to attract the attention of many theorists and practical composers. His works serve as good educative examples to learn more and more about the world of classical and Baroque music. His Dance Suite and The Well-Tempered Clavier are real treasures, which have to be kept, analyzed, and used in order to improve our modern music. Bibliography Apel, Willi. Harvard Dictionary of Music, Harvard University Press, 1969. Barbour, James, M. Tuning and Temperament: A Historical Survey, Courier D over Publications, 2004. Gillespie, John. Five Centuries of Keyboard Music: An Historical Survey of Music for Harpsichord and Piano, Courier Dover Publications, 1972. Lloyd-Watts, Valery Bigler, Carole L., and Palmer, Willard A. Ornamentation: A Question Answer Manual, Alfred Publishing, 1995. Melamed, Daniel, R. J. S. Bach and the German Motet, Cambridge University Press, 1995. Neumann, Frederick. Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music: With Special Emphasis on J. S. Bach, Princeton University Press, 1983. Schulenberg, David. The Key Board Music of J. S. Bach, CRC Press, 2006 Sharpe, R. A. Music and Humanism: An Essay in the Aesthetics of Music, Oxford University Press, 2000. Footnotes 1 Neumann, Frederick. Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music: With Special Emphasis on J.S. Bach (Princeton University Press, 1983), 7 2 Schulenberg, David. The Keyboard Music of J. S. Bach (CRS Press, 2006), 199 3 Apel, Willi. Harvard Dictionary of Music. (Harvard University Press , 1969), 448 4 Barbour, James, M. Tuning and Temperament: A Historical Survey, (Courier Dover Publication, 2004), 87 5 Lloyd-Watts, Valery Bigler, Carole L., and Palmer, Willard A. Ornamentation: A Question Answer Manual. (Alfred Publishing, 1995), 39 6 Gillespie, John. Five Centuries of Keyboard Music: An Historical Survey of Music for Harpsichord and Piano (Courier Dover Publications, 1972), 40 7Sharpe, R. A. Music and Humanism: An Essay in the Aesthetics of Music (Courier Dover Publications, 1972), 81 8 Melamed, Daniel, R. J. S. Bach and the German Motet, (Cambridge University Press, 1995), 54. This report on Pre-Concert Talk about Johann Sebastian Bach was written and submitted by user Alexa U. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Pre Introduction The pre-Raphaelite was an association of English artists who included poets and painters. It was launched in 1848 by William Holman hunt, Dante Gabriel rosette together with john Everett Millais. Later the founders initiated William Michaels, James Collinson, Thomas Woolner and Fredric Stephens into the group so as to establish a seven member union.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pre-Raphaelite Artists specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization intent was to create art by denouncing what they perceived to be mechanistic concepts formerly exploited by the mannerist artists who came after Raphael and Michelangelo. This group of artists assumed that classical dynamics and stylish compositions evident in Raphael artwork were in essence ruining the scholarly teaching concerning art. And this resulted in the emergence of Pre-Raphaelite artists.Ã Fundamentally, Pre-Raphaelite painters were in resi stance to or disregarded the manipulatins of R.A. pioneer Sir Joshua Reynolds. The Pre-Raphaelites artists opted to go back to the aspects of art that involved copious details, complex compositions of Italian and Flemish art, in addition to the use of intense colors. From time and again the Pre-Raphaelites are ever considered as the first avant-garde association in art. However, they have been deprived of that status for they went on embracing both the aspects of history painting as well as that nimesis, or aping that nature, as the core to the objective of art. Nevertheless, the Pre-Raphaelites did establish themselves as a transformation-movement, they established a unique name for their distinct art, and eventually published their own journal, The Germ, to endorse their views and ideas. The movementÃ¢â¬â¢s early dogmas were illustrated in four concepts: to have indisputable ideas to articulate to learn Nature conscientiously, so as to be acquainted with how to convey them to c ommiserate with what is undeviating and solemn and sincere in earlier art, to barring of what is conformist and self-burlesquing and attained by rote most obligatory of all, to create comprehensively superior portraits and statues These standards are plainly non-dogmatic; the Pre-Raphaelites anticipated emphasizing on the dynamics of personal responsibility (Hunt 81). This was in regard to individual artist concerning the manner one defined or determined personal concepts and ideals. The pre-Raphaelite artists were considerably swayed by Romanticism, this can be allied to the fact that they perceived liberty and responsibilities were inseparable.Advertising Looking for essay on art? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, medieval perceptions as well as cultures captivated them. They considered medieval culture to hold spiritual as well as creative inceptions that were missing in later periods.Ã Exploring the impact of med ieval on pre-Raphaelite, the artists emphasized more on dynamics that singularly clashed with specific aspects of realism. These aspects touch on the ideals of independent scrutiny of nature. Therefore, examining the profound dynamics of the Pre-Raphaelites in regard to medieval approaches the artists in this movement had different believes in art. This can be supported by the fact that the Pre-Raphaelites perceived that art was in essence spiritual in nature. Hence, their concern revolved within the perimeters of idealism, materialism and realism. Overview The Victorian period was in essence a period of social changes which compelled all artists whether sculptors, painters, poets or writers to take a definite position in the immediate concern of the society. Nevertheless, the direct forms found within the Romanticism persisted dominating the English artist, the attention of most artists focused on the growth and establishment of this art. However, from such a position, the medieval concepts which reigned during the gothic, early Christian art, insular art, Romanesque, and Byzantine period among others, were replicated by pre-Raphaelite artists differently. Therefore, looking at the manner the art historianÃ¢â¬â¢s paint these artists it becomes paramount to attempt to examine them critically. The sole objective would to understand the phenomenon of producing their works in diverse media different from the popular fresco paintings.Ã Considerably some of the artists associated with the pre-Raphaelite movement such as Hunt and Millais established a process of painting which was dissimilar from realists and gothic concepts. Their procedures advocated for the luminosity rather unwarranted misuse of bitumen by previous English painters such as David Wilkie. The Pre-Raphaelites artists exhibited their maiden work in the wake of 1849. Some of the exhibited work entailed Millais painting Isabella (1848-1849) as well as Hunts piece Rienzi (1848-1849) (Barringer 113) . The artist allied to this movement painted or rather presented works that were unique but controversial. Unlike in earlier period when religious and social aspects formed a central theme in paintings, Pre-Raphaelites examined diverse aspects of the society in their works.Ã Though, the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s medievalism was considerably attacked by those artists who viewed themselves as conservatives.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pre-Raphaelite Artists specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Pre-Raphaelites continued creating art work devoted to details. Despite the challenges which the Pre-Raphaelites encountered they did shed unrivalled light in regard to the dynamics of English art. Considering that conception that the medieval English society valued religious ideals, the Pre-Raphaelites went against these restrictions to greater engagements. It is from their devotion to nature, color and artistic compositions th at made them to be a force within the annals of art history. In essence, the pre-Raphaelite artists reacted against what art historians perceive to be unimaginative as well as artificial antique paintings created by the royal academy. The artists were compactly inspired and influenced by 15th century Italian art. Though this movement did not last long, her followers had instrumental impact on British art. This can be testified by the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s profound interior designs as well as decorative arts which they created.Ã The Pre-Raphaelites created and produced extremely convincing as well as significant paintings. Their work which entailed religious including medieval features emulated the extreme and utmost religious feelings as well as the naÃ ¯ve 15th century paintings of Florentine and Sienese. Hence, the style adopted by such pre-Raphaelite painters as Hunt and Millais developed art work featuring sharp as well as dazzling lighting, with a clear ambiance, and an almost pho tographic replica of fine details. Equally, the artists allied to this period or movement introduced articulate and private symbolism into their religious subjects along the medieval themes. All in all, John Ruskin, who was a popular writer and a pundit championed for the cause of the pre-Raphaelite artists. In essence, he played a critical role in reinforcing the movementÃ¢â¬â¢s scope of moral responsibilities as well as social commitment. Unlike the earlier artworks, the pre-Raphaelite art stood out as distinct and fresh due to its innovativeness. Pre-Raphaelites artists The movement is credited with some of the most outstanding artists. Some of the pre-Raphaelite artists left an indelible mark in the historic archives. Therefore, it can be asserted that pre-Raphaelite era was in essence phenomenal. Some of the big names include; Dante Gabriel Rossetti Rossetti was a popular figure and an established English poet, painter, translator and illustrator. With his close allies they f ounded the pre-Raphaelite brotherhood in the wake of 1848. As a painter, his works were symbolically characterized by their unique sensuality as well as their strong medieval revivalism.Advertising Looking for essay on art? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More so, his paintings influenced to a great deal the European symbolist in addition to the fact that he was a key precursor of the famed aesthetic movement. Regarding his poetry, John Keats is said to have influenced him profoundly. This is evident in his earlier writings. Generally, his foremost paintings which were in oil expose the realist dynamics of the primary pre-Raphaelite movement. Girlhood of Mary Virgin as well as Ecce Ancilla Domini reflects his style and taste in regard to painting. In essence, he had a unique technique that exploited painting in oils while using water-based color brushes, as lightly as in water-based color, also on canvas which he treated with white to attain a smooth surface. This guaranteed that every tint remained transparent. Naturally, he painted from an aesthetic purpose. In his paintings he injected the scope of incorporating symbolic as well as mythological aspects than touch on the realistic images. According to the available literature on ar t Rossetti is said to have developed his own painting technique. The technique involved using water colors which formulated to make thick pigments using gum. The purpose of this process was to generate a rich effect that was resembled the medieval illuminations. Equally, he established a new drawing method in pen plus ink. One of his published works was Ã¢â¬Å"The Maids of Elfen-MereÃ¢â¬ (1855), among others. In spite of his dreams concerning Arthurian anecdote in addition to medieval blueprint greatly influenced such painters as William Morris as well as Edward Burne-Jones. As is with other pre-Raphaelite painters, he encountered diverse critical hostilities for his primary paintings. Though, he worked extremely slowly this helped him in picking the most delicate details (Andres 200). Ruskin a celebrated art pundit recognized his dilemma and seamlessly encouraged him to attempt finishing at least a single painting at a time. However, Rossetti took most of his time and concentrat ion creating and producing both drawings and poems. With the time the use of water colors developed to be his favorite medium. In his search for a definite approach to art he moved further and further away from the dynamics of pre-Raphaelite modernism. And this resulted in him discarding his contemporary themes altogether. Subsequently he concentrated on antique stories and legends.Ã As a painter his major themes revolved around women, who, he assumed, held the secrecy of continuation within themselves. He viewed women as magical entities, living in mysticism and sensuality and this made him to examine the themes regarding feminine virtue, splendor, and passion leading him to limit himself to women subjects. After a period of attempting doing illustrations with woodcuts to substantial success, he reverted back to exploring the dynamism of Arthurian themes and subjects. He eked a negligible living by merchandising small, watercolor jewels to a definite group of collectors. He also did paint me a number of watercolors which he sold to William Morris. However, the characteristics and uniqueness of Arthurian/medieval romance continued to capture his imagination. And this resulted in him being commissioned to embellish the Oxford Union Building in the wake of 1857. Holman Hunt In personality Holman Hunt was entirely dissimilar from his partners. Naturally, he is mostly depicted as an arrogant and unfriendly. He was a son to a warehouse director or manager in Cheapside, London. Hunt spent a great deal in his formative years reading the bible. At the age of 12 he was earning as a clerk. He dreamed of being an artist, though he did not have the natural gift. However, he was full of imagination as well as visions which were complimented by very rare attributes at a time when the society was moving towards the post-industrial revolution.Ã He managed to convince his parents to allow him to attend Royal Academy where he anticipated pursuing his dream of being a painte r. At the college he was confused by the traditional British art, in it he found nothing imaginative to admire. But after reading John RuskinÃ¢â¬â¢s volume on Modern Painters he was highly impressed by the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. The argument captured young Hunt imagination that had a profound spiritual background. The idea of reviving the dynamism of symbolic realism into the contemporary art, in the pursuit of his dream he met Millais, a fellow scholar at Royal Academy of Arts. Gradually, they developed a desire to participate in 1848 Royal Academy exhibition. The foremost painting of Hunt was adopted from the theme of a poem The Eve of St Agnes which was composed by a little known poet Keats.Ã All in all, Hunt is among the founding associates of the pre-Raphaelite movement. This was a group of artists who were extremely opposed to the odd, academic approach of painting advocated by Royal Art Academy. Just as is with such painters as Rossetti as well as John Everett Millais, his work revolved within the axis of mythology, biblical narratives, and medieval legends. His paintings are commonly unforgettable, romantic, luminous and equally flowing with unique symbolism and realism. As is illustrated by his biographer Schell Bacon he began to be an artist while working in a calico printer in Manchester. As the years progressed he rejected the concepts of crass materialism which had become the epitome of Victorian society. However, he was later forced to reconnect with his lost dynamics of spirituality of Gothic, Early-Renaissance and Medieval imagery. Eventually, he was attracted by the symbolic realism as well as mysticism exposed in Sassattas works. In his painting career he sought to achieve or attain both the moral and spiritual aspects of previous periods.Ã In the dawn of 1850 he finished his classic paint work A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Missionary from the Persecution of the Druids- commonly referred as The Missionary. This pa inting was presented in the same show as Millais piece Christ in the House of His Parents. However, one of the most notable works he painted was The Hireling Shepherd which became one of the most recognized pre-Raphaelite paintings. Also he painted a companion image that symbolized and narrated his transformation to religion. And this happened to be his turning point in his private life touching on his artistic as well as his spiritual life. His paintings illustrate him to be an individual who was etched in spirituality. The assumption is well supported by the classic painting titled The Light of the World. However, to attain his imagination of realism he is said to have opted to do his paintings at night under the lamp light. Hence, his works carries diverse and unique symbolism. More so, he established his personal artistic language to convey his message through the technique he referred as Ã¢â¬Å"symbolic realismÃ¢â¬ . According to established studies his later paintings were d one as a measure to establish and bring together the religious art in the wake of post industrial audience. However, for 1852 exhibition Hunt painted the worldly version of his earlier religious paintings, The Awakening Conscience. Pre-Raphaelites paintings The pre-Raphaelite painters as well as those painters who were allied to them produced a considerable amount of classic pieces. Both in secular and religious context these paintings had a considerable impact on the British society. It should be noted that this movement played a critical role in shaping and opening a novel window for the artists to explore other dynamics of paintings which went against the academic assumptions advocated by the Royal Academy of Arts. As is with the diverse poets and archictures of the period, Pre-Raphaelites artists explored the previous medieval periods in their paintings. Some of the major pre-Raphaelite paintings touched in extreme religious subjects as is with the paintings of Holman Hunt. Howe ver, pre-Raphaelite paintings did not have a definite principle. Most of them dwelt on Italian art while some were done with the tone of gothic and earl-Christian perceptions. Some of these pre-Raphaelite paintings were: Ã John Everett Millais Among the most notable pre-Raphaelite paintings, Millais painting Isabella stands as one of the foremost oil painting. The painting is developed with an elaborate foreshadowing using fine stroke and reflective bright colors. The theme of this painting was borrowed from Keats poem, The Pot of Basil; he was a little known poet who lived in early 1818. The painting exposes how the painter incorporated complex strokes with unique profiles together with flat perspectives. This technique allowed the painter to capture the details. Therefore, the significance of the painting touches on the unique consideration of women in the society.Ã The painting touches on a happening from the poem that depicts the relationship involving Isabella, and a certai n fellow named as Lorenzo (Daly 107). Isabella is depicted clad in grey and is being given a blood orange by her doomed lover Lorenzo. The orange is symbolic, it illustrates that someone neck has been beheaded. The paintings composition as well as meaning is etched among the painters deliberate and shagged perspective. Examining the aspects of pre-Raphaelite concepts, the painter purposely purges chiaroscuro in addition to inflating the concentration of juxtaposed hues and tones as is testified in the plain and flat dark tunic which is elaborately set against the sharply formulated white clothing. The base on of the chair Isabella is sited is contains the letters (Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood). William Holman Hunt This painting is perhaps one of the few celebrated paintings depicting Christ. The period it was painted England was facing religious revival. According to diverse historical scholars Hunt was inspired by a biblical verse Revelation 3:20. Hence, an image of Christ holding a lantern seamlessly haunted him. To illustrate his vision he employed the use of materials having profound significance and meaning. Hence, he decorated an orchard standing for a sleeping soul. More so, the orchard stood for available sustenance needed by the soul. Also, full-grown apples for harvest are equally depicted in the downside of the painting. While a bat in the darkness symbolizes ignorance. For the purpose of expressing ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s face, the painter opted for a woman. This is commonly allied to the fact that woman treasures gravity, energy and attractiveness of expression (Maas 141).Ã Symbolically, for Christ figure he employed the male figure. This painting provides a critical insight into the manner the early English society perceived religion. As a member of pre-Raphaelite movement, paying attention to details provided him with an opportunity to paint a sensational image. It ought to be noted that the pre-Raphaelite painters were inspired by religion and nature. With the combination of such periods as Gothic, Medieval and Early-Christian painting concepts, this painting acquires a definite place in both religious and secular painting community. The painting though unique and depicting spiritual significance faced a stiff challenge from the religious circles. However, John Ruskin a respected art critic explained the significance of the painting and the value it held in regard to the sacred history. The first impressions of the painting were published in the wake of 1858.this permitted the greater public to have a close look at it.Ã This happened across Europe and America subsequently due to the success of this painting, hunt developed a smaller version by 1865. However, the primary painting was donated to Keble College. Examining this piece of art from the pre-Raphaelite perspective it offers an incredible insight into the way this movement impact on the English art. Despite the medieval aspects which were exported to the painting, the pai nter proved that imagination played a central role in as far as painting was concerned Works cited Andres, Sophia.The Pre-Raphaelite Art of the Victorian.NY: Ohio State University, 2004. Barringer, Tim. Reading the Pre-Raphaelites. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. Daly, Gay. Pre-Raphaelites in Love. New York: Ticknor, 2002. Hunt, Hunt. Pre-Raphaelitism. London: Macmillan; 1999. Maas, Jeremy. Holman Hunt and the Light of the World. NY: Ashgate, 2000 This essay on Pre-Raphaelite Artists was written and submitted by user Kamren Baxter to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Pre